Old Directions

Many travelers stop to read the travel signs to remember the old lanes or have seen old landmarks on their way west of the Mississippi. On a recent six-week trip from St. Louis, I am often reminded of the early pioneers who use St. Louis, the "western gate," and other towns around Missouri as "jumping places." Attracted by gold, free distance and opportunity, he hoped for a better life in the new community. Many were inspired by the stories of pirates and traffickers who pledged across the & # 39; mountains, and thought they could secure their future through the Oregon, Santa Fe or Overland Trails route. A tour of the old trails or the paths that followed them and the towns that resulted from the trails can be enjoyed by travelers today.

In 1851, John Soule, editor of the Terre Haute Express, wrote "Go west, young man!" words that remain part of the American word. Although Lewis & Clark had completed the tour in the early m & # 39; 1900s, there is no railroad to continue there. Generally, it takes four to six months for a family to move from Missouri to Oregon or California by train. About seven years after Soule's writing in 1858, the first non-stop left St. Louis to Los Angeles. The 2,600 morning trip lasted 20 days. The passenger train did not compete with him until 1869 and it was not long before the train train and island tours continued.

Lewis and Clark sailed successfully to the Pacific in the early m & # 39; s 1800 although it took them a few months longer than planned. False reports of an easy section across the & # 39; s mountain range described by members as "slippery as the roof" and snow and lack of food caused the delays. When they arrived there, they encountered buckets and buckets of endless rain. Within 30 minutes of the American election, he decided to vote on how long he would allow all the celebrities, including blacks, Indians, and women, to participate in the elections. He chose the southern part of the Colombian River but complained that he had enough food and constant rain, and did not like fish. He embarked on a return trip in March, and reached St. Louis in September where he was accepted as a hero. Many Native Americans supported them and only a few, like Blackfoot, stopped them when they realized they were probably trading with their enemies.

Lewis and Clark embarked on the expedition in May of 1804 and returned in September of 1806. They traveled 4,162 miles, and recorded 122 new species and 178 unnamed plants. The highlight of the moment was the realization of President Thomas Jefferson's dream to establish the West in the United States

An interesting proof of this journey can be seen in Cairo, Illinois, where a poster is called "Continued." Cairo is in the Ohio and Mississippi river competitions. It is a big town now though it used to be a very prosperous city as it is built and the highways. Sign read:

In November, 1803, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, as well as the close association of the men of the "Corps of Discovery", spent five days here teaching each other the art of observing and moving. Using sextant, octant, holiday digs, and translation tables, he was able to find the original length and height to use in the Expedition. The following maps of the northern and western United States, in preparation for the use of the Lewis and Clark data, began as a result of these large rivers, in 1803, which were south of 2nd Street in Cairo today.

The Spaniards had many of their own ways, and they were competing with the United States to take the western territories. They tried to stop Lewis and Clark in the mountains, but couldn't find them. The Old Spain National Historic Trail is still on the map in Colado, New Mexico and Utah and was a connecting trade route that linked northern New Mexico near Santa Fe and Los Angeles and southern California. Approximately 1,200 miles long, traversing & # 39; high mountains, deserts and spreading places. It is considered to be one of the most powerful of all the established routes in the United States and was investigated, among other things, by Spanish explorers in the late M & # 39; 1500s. The railway was widely used by railways from the 1830s to the mid-1850s.

Today, hikers can also see the old Santa Fe Trail, tomorrow it was in the central Missouri town of Franklin north of the Missouri River. The Missouri transit system first used by Becknell, an entrepreneur, followed the stages of Osage Trace and the Trails of Medicine. West of Franklin, the route passed through Missouri near Arrow Rock, after which it followed the current US Route route. It passed north of Marshall, via Lexington to Fort Osage, then to Uhuru, which is also a well-known "jumping m & # 39; place" for the Oregon and California Trails.

Before Lewis and Clark explored the Spanish and even the French pirates, American Muslims settled in and traveled west. Visitors can visit places such as the Aztec National Monument, Chaco Canyon, Gallup, Hubbell Trading Post and Chinle and the Canyon de Chelly in the Navajo Nation to name a few. The Aztec ruins are located near the banks of the "Lost River" listed by the Spanish exploration team in 1776. They saw numerous ruins of Pueblo ancestors m & # 39; s that crossed the Animas River in search of California. For thousands of years, Native Americans have gone on the road to harvest, hunt, trade, plunder, war, religious entertainment and celebration. They would have traveled the & # 39; s route as far back as eight or nine years ago plus thousands of miles connecting from Texas from the west to the Pacific North Pacific and from Mexico to the north.

While many Anative American routes were hiking, some achieved unrealistic goals, for example, the spectacular 400-foot "network" that appears from the well-known chlor Canyon Anasazi Puebloan, the first 2000 years of northwestern New Mexico. These streets had long straight sections, sometimes 30 feet, horizontal, border walls, berms and sideways "motels". They often connect with Chaco Canyon, the center of commerce and religion. Some archaeologists think that they were businessmen while others think they are traditional, but their purpose remains a mystery.

Although many sections of Native American culture and pioneering had caused controversy or bloodshed, except for the excitement was the Hubbell Trading Post. It remains as it was and was declared a National Historic Site. The only permanent use of the old wagon route was the passage to the Dominguez-Escalante in 1776.

John Lorenzo Hubbell bought the real estate in 1878; ten years later the Navajo were allowed to return to their homeland from a savage slavery in Bosque Redondo, Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. Over the four years he spent at Bosque Redondo, Navajos has introduced many new products. Retailers like Hubbell donated the items as soon as they returned home.

Hubbell had a sewing ability in the design of the Navajo and the silver carpenter, as he always wanted and developed skills in the craft. He also built a retail outlet that combines the stadium with freight lines and several retail outlets. Needless to say, he was the first Navajo-based trader at that time. The Hubbell family operated the project until it was sold to the National Park Service in 1967. The commercial post is still in existence, run by a nonprofit organization.

Religious and ethnic persecution also spawned groups. The Trail of Tears and the Navajo Long Walk are examples of the social persecution that led to the establishment, during which the Mormons escaped from religious persecution. In 1846 the Navajo was betrayed peacefully by the U.S., but in 1863 Col Kit Carson began a brutal campaign against the Navajo. The Navajo used the Canyon de Chelly as a refuge, hiding in stone & # 39; He stored food and water. Despite this warning, Carson's troops marched towards Canyon de Chelly tomorrow and pushed the Navajo into the mouth. Many were captured or killed. The soldiers destroyed pigs, orchards and sheep. Survivors were later forced to travel more than 300 miles to Fort Sumner in New Mexico. Many died along the way and suffered from food and shelter and illness at the Fort. In 1868 he was finally allowed to return home. Retail businesses like Hubbell helped the Navajo survive. Today Dine thrives in Chinle and around Canyon de Chelly. As the Navajo Nation leader said, "We'll be like a stone the river should be around." (Ailema Benally, Navajo)

The Mormons were deported to Missouri and Illinois and were forced to cross west via the Mormon Trail. From Nauvoo, Illinois, where the Latter Day Saints settled from 1839 to 1846, to Salt Lake City, Utah, founded by Brigham Young and his supporters from 1847. From Council Bluffs, Iowa, to Fort Bridger in Wyoming , passing the same route as the Oregon Trail and California Trail; Both routes are known as the Emigrant Trail.

In 1856, the church established handbag companies to help European immigrants travel more easily. Handmade, two-wheeled carts pulled by migrants, a place for forced animals, are sometimes used as an alternative to travel from 1856 to 1860. It is considered the fastest, easiest, and cheapest means of transport for Europeans. in Salt Lake City. The sidewalk was littered with heaps of "leeverites," things that migrants had to "leave here" to control their wagons. Subsequently, the Mormons created a home business selling pigs and selling them to migrants passing through the Salt Lake Valley.

Although most of the treatment regimens passed, few groups had multiple injuries. Two groups began their trek dangerously and were hit by snow and freezing temperatures inside Wyoming. One of the group traveled to Fort Laramie with the hope that they would meet again, but food was scarce. Despite the miraculous rescue efforts, more than 210 of the 980 m & # 39 of these companies died. John Chislett, a survivor, wrote, "Many a father pulled his cart, with his young children there, until the day of his execution." Travelers will enjoy a visit to Laramie which was adjacent to the Overland Stage and the Union Pacific side of the first rail.

If you are traveling in June, the "Mormon Miracle Pageant", held every June at Temple Hill in Manti, Utah is a fascinating history. It touches the whole group, and recounts the fascinating story of how the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was founded and of the Mormon pioneers who founded the West.

About a year before moving to Latter-day Saint, the Reed-Donner train marked the first route through the last gate between Big Mountain and the Salt Lake Valley. About halfway through, the group changed and went around the final sections near the mouth of the valley. Rock climbing and openings may have caused their old problem and delayed for several days. When the front company from the Latter-day Saint vanguard company arrived in the area, they decided to stick to the valley and close it through to the bench moyang & # 39; s contact with the Great Salt Lake basin in less than four hours. Lansford Hastings who described an alternative received death threats. The immigrant confronted Hastings about his ordeal saying, "Of course, there is nothing to say but that he was sorry, and that he meant well". Historians say the season is one of California's hottest in & # 39; Hikers across the Wasatch Mountains can see the sign that the Donner Party has passed by. They can sense their presence, and seem to be reminded of the beautiful wildflowers that adorn the path.

As Douglas Adams wrote, "M & # 39; an inanimate universe, the only thing that can never have a better life." Some of his predecessors and recent historians have criticized leaders like Brigham Young or George Donner for these problems, but the pioneers themselves were so keen to go west for a better life that perhaps no one was to blame. They did not realize or chose to ignore the size of this vast wilderness based on their small & # 39; s wagon. Of the approximately 360,000 people who traveled west on the Oregon Trail before the Transcontinental Railroad, about 10 to 20,000 people died. This figure is lower than we would expect, given the complexity of the problem including climate, excess water, deserts, mountains, food insecurity and disease. Surprisingly, some sick people believed that the journey could heal them. The drug treatment that police officers provided for treating the disease with wounds consisted of "patented" medicinal "tincture of camphor. It's amazing that one of the ten migrants dies. Contrary to popular Native American beliefs did not create a significant threat to the pioneers.

Boredom was another problem that modern travelers never think about. One pioneer said it was interesting, in fact, that he welcomed the Indians (though few). Kids are known for having fun with just a bumblebee like a trampoline. Games and pets are usually in children while adults enjoy themselves with music, dance, and stories. There was a well-known festival scene during the annual festivities, and eight cafes, taverns, and business centers that were m & # 39; s way reduced the monotony. Women often have longer days than men who spend time hunting and fishing while the women teach children, cook, wash and change clothes, and do various boring tasks.

On the way back to St. Louis travelers can follow old routes such as the U.S. 40, the old road that used to be a sidewalk. It runs parallel to Interstate 70 for most of the way back to St. Louis. Arrow Rock is a fun place. A stone-like pillar, called a gem for the first time appears on the 1732 French map "pierre fleche," meaning "arrows of arrows." Archaeological evidence indicates that for some 12,000 years natural resources have been using the Arrow Rock bluff as a site for artillery and weapons.

In the 1820s, the first travelers on what would become the Santa Fe Trail crossed the river at Arrow Rock and filled their water barrels with fresh water "in the Big Spring" before heading west. Even though the village is small, it remains a vital community. In 1963, the entire town was designated a National Historic Landmark because of its affiliation with Westward Expension. Arrow Rock, Missouri is the official site for Lewis & Clark and Santa Fe Trails.

Back to St. Louis travelers have to travel across the Mississippi to Illinois to visit the Cahokia Mound State Historic Site, and the best of the Mississippian cultures. Cahokia's location along the three major rivers and the four natural lanes made it the perfect place to thrive in a safe haven. In A.D. 1250 was larger than London was. But the knowledge gained from citizens & # 39; s way back in the early 10,000 B.C. allowed these people to do even better. He also benefited from traveling long distances on the trade routes already established by the Woodland Indians. They consist of shells of copper, mica and oceans and include parts of their other cultures. We benefit from some of their strategies today.

Learning more about the ancient travels and groups they took adds to the "travel time" aspect of the trip and contributes greatly to visiting the archaeological sites. Nowadays, travelers no longer worry that they may take the wrong road or the amount of other problems they have encountered in the past but they can still face hope. Following the pioneers' footsteps provides the opportunity to walk back on the old paths.

Note: Thanks to the Oregon-California Trails Association which is the world's largest and most popular group for protecting and regulating transit routes and experiences.